Mary Ellen Mark was most notably a documentary photographer, focusing on people living on the margins of society.
William Klein was born in New York, but settled in France after WWII. He is famous for his fashion photography and his photo essays on various cities. He has also directed film. Who Are You, Polly Maggoo? is a satirical take on the world of fashion. He has also directed numerous documentaries on such subjects as Muhammed Ali and the French Open.
Note: While I’ve placed Witkacy in the ‘Photographers’ category, he was also a painter (and philosopher, novelist, playwright…)