Heinrich Kühn was an important Pictorialist and one of the earliest color photographers. His goal was to use photography as a medium for realizing an artistic vision as precisely as in painting.
Trude Fleischmann established her career in photography in Vienna, opening her own studio in her 20s. She was known primarily for her work with celebrities from the world of music and theatre. She departed Austria when it was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1938, and successfully resumed her career in New York.
Mary Ellen Mark was most notably a documentary photographer, focusing on people living on the margins of society.
William Klein was born in New York, but settled in France after WWII. He is famous for his fashion photography and his photo essays on various cities. He has also directed film. Who Are You, Polly Maggoo? is a satirical take on the world of fashion. He has also directed numerous documentaries on such subjects as Muhammed Ali and the French Open.